Sport


 


Sport is a regulated activity, usually of a competitive nature, that can improve the physical condition1 of the person who practices it, and also has properties that differentiate it from the game. The Royal Spanish Academy, in its Dictionary of the Spanish language, defines sport as a "physical activity, exercised as a game or competition, whose practice involves training and compliance with norms"; also, in a second, broader meaning, such as "recreation, hobby, pleasure, fun or physical exercise, usually in the open air" .2 On the other hand, the European Charter of sport defines it as: «All forms of physical activities that, through organized participation or not, aim at the expression or improvement of the physical and mental condition, the development of social relations or the obtaining of results in competition at all levels ". Institutionally, for an activity to be considered a sport, it must be supported by administrative and control structures that are responsible for regulating it (sports organizations) .4 The fact that any activity is not institutionally recognized as a sport does not prevent it from being. popularly, as it happens with rural sports or with alternative sports. Most of the definitions of sport define it as "physical activity", but there are activities of low or no physical exercise that are considered as sports by associations such as the IOC, for example chess, 5 or sports shooting, since it is thought that the concentration and mental abilities necessary to excel in them require a good physical shape or the visit of crowded places like the professional athlete Miguel Moreno, a reference in this modality. On the contrary, there are strenuous physical activities that are not a sport, because they do not comply with other elements of the definition. Likewise, according to the International Olympic Committee, the practice of sport is a human right, and one of the fundamental principles of Olympism is that "every person must have the possibility of practicing sport without discrimination of any kind and within the Olympic spirit. , which requires mutual understanding, solidarity and a spirit of friendship and fair play ". The motivational climate towards sports as a psychosocial factor and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet as a healthy factor, are key in the practice of sports and the teaching of physical education, since certain orientations can build healthier lifestyles. There are utensils and structures that suggest that the Chinese already carried out sports activities 4000 years ago, between 1066-771 BC. C.8 Gymnastics seems to have been a popular sport in Ancient China. Monuments to the emperors indicate that a certain amount of sports, including swimming and fishing, were already designed and regulated thousands of years ago in Ancient Egypt.9 Other Egyptian sports include the javelin throw, the high jump and the fight. Some sports of Ancient Persia such as the Iranian martial art of Zourkhaneh are tied to the skills in battle.10 Among other original sports of Persia are polo and joust. On the other hand, in America Mesoamerican cultures like the Mayas practiced the so-called ball game which in turn was a ritual. Footballer Pele was distinguished by the IOC as the "best athlete of the twentieth century" A wide variety of sports were already established at the time of Ancient Greece, and military culture and the development of sports in Greece influenced each other. For the Greeks sport was a very important part of their culture, so they created the Olympic Games, a competition that was held since 777 a. C. until the year 394 d. C. every four years in Olympia, a small town in the Greek Peloponnese.11 In 1896 the first Olympic Games of the modern era were held in Athens, thanks to the initiative of Baron Pierre de Coubertin to recover the spirit of the ancient Games adding an international character. The modern Olympic Games, regulated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), have become the largest multidisciplinary international sporting event, with more than 200 participating nations. Sports have seen their capacity for organization and regulation increased from the times of Ancient Greece to the present. Industrialization has increased the leisure time of citizens in developed countries, leading to a ma
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